Safety features in vehicles
1. Crumple zones .
In a crash, the bonnet and boot of the car is designed to crumple, making the collision last a slightly longer time. The chassis contains parts that have grooves or beads cast into them. In a collision, these beads act as weak points in the members, causing them to crumple in a concertina shape.The force exerted on the car (and on its passengers ) is then smaller.
2. Strong steel struts or framework of the car
The strong steel struts prevents the collapse of the front and back of the car into the passenger compartment. Also gives good protection from a side-on collision.
3. Padded dashboard , seat and headrest. .
To reduce the risk of injury , the interior of the car must be made to absorb the impact. The car can have padded dashboards. The seat is padded and the headrest reduces the risk of the passenger’s neck being damaged in near-end collision.
4. Collapsible steering wheels
Steering wheel of a car is made of material soft enough to leghten the collision time and to cushion the momentum impact of the driver’s head during an acciedent.
5. Shatterproof windscreen glass .
Usage of shatterproof windscreen to prevent the passengers from being injured by glass pieces during accident because the glass pieces will not scattered easily .
6. Automatic air bag .
An air bag in a car is designed to inflate only when the vehicle experiences a 20 km h-1 or greater impact. The car’s computer control make a decision in few milliseconds to detonate the gas cylinders that inflate the air bag. As the driver lunges forward into the air bag, allowing the driver to slow in a longer time. Injury is thus minimized. The air bag also spreads the impact force over a larger area of the body.
An inertial reel seatbelt is taut but allows enough free movement during normal travelling. When an accident occurs, as the car exceeds a certain deceleration value, a locking mechanism will engage and stop the driver from crashing forward. The driver is not brought to a stop immediately and this helps reduce the force acting on a driver.
8. Tyre design
The tyre of a car should be broad and with friction grooves so as to control better the stability and change of momentum of the car.
9. Safety helmets
Safety helmets are compulsory for motor cyclists. There is a growing amount of evidence to suggest that many injuries to pedal cyclists would also be much less serious if they wore safety helmets too. The purpose of a safety helmet is to protect the wearer’s head from large forces in an accident. It works on exactly the same principle as the seat belt and crumple zone. Inside the helmet there is a layer of expanded from or other similar padding. In a crash , if the motor cyclist’s head hits another vehicle or the road, the webbing and the padding inside the helmet allow the head to move a short distance before distance. The time allowed for the cyclist’s moving head to slow down and stop is longer. So the average force on the head is smaller.
10. Accident avoidance systems.
New vehicle safety technologies now concentrate on preventing accidents rather than reducing their effects. These include:
· Antilock brake systems (ABS) – Usage of the ABS which will not immediately stop the car once the brakes are applied. The car will be momentarily brought to rest so that the impulsive force is smaller.
· Variable-ratio response steering systems
· Intelligent speed adaptation systems
· Reverse collision warning systems
11. Protecting the pedestrian
Vehicles are designed to protect pedestrians also.
· Vehicles are designed with a low, energy-absorbing bumper to reduce knee and hip damage to pedestrians.
· Bumper bars are placed below waist level to reduce the like hood of the pedestrian being run over.
· Bonnet of a car can reduce casualty in car accidents. When the car hits a pedestrian, the bonnet of the car will automatically spring upwards . This will prolong the collision time and hence reduces the impulsive force acting on the pedestrian.
· Driver warning functions :Two different types of driver warning functions will be provided.
Lateral Drift Warning Function ;This
Functionality will help drivers avoid inadvertent drift-off that may result in striking another vehicle, roll-over or impact with a fixed object. Curve Speed Warning Function ;This feature would warn drivers to slow down for an upcoming curve so as not to lose control and depart the road.
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